Studies conducted in Serbia and worldwide concluded that socioeconomic determinants of health, such as gender, wealth, ethnicity and place of living, are strongly associated with health status. Recognized inequalities in health due to differences in socioeconomic status require a structured institutional response and multisectoral actions at many levels. The WHO Regional Office for Europe proposed using methodology developed to review and reorient national strategies, programmes and actions (SPAs) towards greater equity. The Serbian Ministry of Health appointed a working team to review their national programme for early detection of cervical cancer, the chosen SPA. This case study presents the review of the SPA, which identified Roma women and other groups who might not benefit from this programme due to barriers they face at many levels. Along with analysing barriers, it also identifies factors that might facilitate access to this programme. Key recommendations include the need for a multidisciplinary approach focusing on social determinants of health, and intersectoral collaboration of different stakeholders at national, regional and community levels.